In later times the psalms for the encaenia or feast of dedication embraced Ps. But when we look at the psalms themselves we see that they must originally have been a hymn-book, not for the Levites, but for the laity who carne up to Jerusalem at the great pilgrimage feasts, and who themselves remembered, or their fathers had told them, the days when, as we see in Ps.
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The titles which ascribe four of the pilgrimage songs to David and one to Solomon are lacking in the true LXX. Better attested, because found in the LXX. But where did the last collectors of the psalms find such very ancient pieces which had 1 Possibly under Simon; compare the other hallel Ps. The only possible question for the critic is whether the ascription of these psalms to David was due to the idea that he was the psalmist par excellence, to whom any poem of unknown origin was naturally ascribed, or whether we have in some at least of these titles an example of the habit so common in later Jewish literature of writing in the name of ancient worthies.
We have still to consider the two great groups of psalms ascribed to David in books I. It is, however, probable that the title soon came to be understood of David's authorship, with the result that further notes were added indicating the situation in David's life to which the psalms appeared to be appropriate.
It is certainly not impossible that the two groups of " Davidic " psalms once formed separate collections independently compiled, and that the subscription to Ps. It would seem also that the collectors of books I. Even the Chronicler, though he regarded David as the great founder of the Temple music, does not quote any psalm as composed by him, and the Chronicler's omission of 2 Sam. It may fairly be contended therefore that the tradition that David is the author of the psalms which are assigned to him in books I.
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And it is not too much to say that that view - which to some extent appears in the historical psalms of the Ehohistic Psalter - implies absolute incapacity to understand the difference between old Israel and later Judaism, and makes almost anything possible in the way of the ascription of comparatively modern pieces to ancient authors.
The second collection of " Davidic " psalms , as well as the Korahite and Asaphic psalms , have been subjected to an Elohistic redaction, for which we must find a reason if the history of the Psalter is to be written. Both include psalms which are most naturally understood as referring to the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes and to the Maccabaean victories, and cannot therefore be separated by a long interval of time.
And further, if the Elohistic redaction was due merely to a desire to avoid pronouncing the divine name, why was not the presumably earlier collection of psalms in book I. Now it must be frankly admitted that the earlier books of psalms exhibit no particular suitability for the Temple services. Thus, for example, the numerous psalms in which the poets, though speaking perhaps, not as individuals but as members of a class, describe themselves as poor and afflicted at the hands of certain ungodly men, who appear to be Jews, can hardly have been originally collected by the Temple choirs.
On the other hand, the first collection of " Davidic " psalms taken as a whole would be perfectly appropriate in the worship of a Judaean community of Hasidim in the Maccabaean period. In thus assigning the first collection of psalms to some Judaean community of Hasidim in the earlier Maccabaean period we need not conclude that all the psalms contained in this collection were first composed at this time. It must, however, be admitted that as a whole the psalms of the first collection are more suitable to a later date.
It is therefore probable that the second collection of psalms books II. It is possible that these last-mentioned psalms were originally an appendix to the Judaean collection and have been removed from their original place to after the other Levitical psalms. The synagogue collections, since they contained psalms which at this time were probably considered to be the work of David, were placed first, and the Temple collection added to them.
The musical notes found in the titles of the psalms and occasionally also in the text Selah, 1 Higgaion are so obscure that it seems unnecessary to enter here upon the various conjectures that have been made about them. The original music of the psalms was therefore apparently based on popular melodies. It did not, however, obtain ecclesiastical currency - the old versions holding their ground, just as English churchmen still read the Psalms in the version of the " Great Bible " printed in their Prayer Book.
While some works of patristic writers are still of value for text criticism and for the history of early exegetical tradition, the treatment of the Psalms by ancient and medieval Christian writers is as a whole such as to throw light on the ideas of the commentators and their times rather than on the sense of a text which most of them knew only through translations.
For the Psalms , as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages. In the latter class Kimhi stands pre-eminent; to the editions of his commentary on the Psalms enumerated in the article Kimhi must now be added the admirable edition of Dr Schiller-Szinessy Cambridge, , containing, unfortunately, only the first book of his longer commentary.
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Geier , et saepius may still be consulted with advantage, but for most purposes Rosenmtiller's Scholia in Psalms 2nd ed. The question of the text was first properly raised by Olshausen, and has since received special attention from, among others, Lagarde Prophetae chald. The mass of literature on the Psalms is so enormous that no full list even of recent commentaries can be here attempted, much less an enumeration of treatises on individual psalms and special critical questions.
As regards the dates and historical interpretation of the Psalms , all older discussions, even those of Ewald, are in great measure antiquated by recent progress in Pentateuch criticism and the history of the canon, and an entirely fresh treatment of the Psalter by a sober critical commentator is urgently needed.
It was the belief of Professor Robertson Smith that the second Elohistic collection of psalms originated in a time of persecution earlier than the time of Antiochus Epiphanes which he referred to the reign of Artaxerxes III. Of the works on the Psalms which have appeared since the first publication of Professor W. Robertson Smith's article the following may be specially noticed: Cheyne, The Book of Psalms , The 1 It contains, however, elements which are as early as the time of the New Testament. Like the Pentateuch, the Psalms , the Megilloth and the Pirke Aboth, this work was divided into five parts, which, as we shall notice presently, spring from five different sources.
Their ascription to Solomon is due solely to the copyists or translators, for no such claim is made in any of the psalms.
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On the whole, Ryle and James are no doubt right in assigning B. Since the Psalms were written in Hebrew, and intended for public worship in the synagogues, it is most probable that they were composed in Palestine. Some of the later writers in the Old Testament employ the appellative Elohim, God, prevailingly or exclusively; a collection of Psalms Ps.
The extant writings of Paulinus consist of some fifty Epistolae, addressed to Sulpicius Severus, Delphinus, Augustine, Jerome and others; thirty-two Carmina in a great variety of metre, including a series of hexameter "natales," begun about and continued annually in honour of the festival of St Felix, metrical epistles to Ausonius and Gestidius, and paraphrases of three psalms ; and a Passio S. So long as writing materials were allowed him he employed himself in making a commentary on the Psalms , in which he restated all his doctrines.
About this time he read Bucer's commentaries on the Gospels and the Psalms and also Zwingli's De vera et falsa religione; and his Biblical studies began to affect his views. At Rome were published the Gospels with a dedication to Pope Damasus, an explanatory introduction, and the canons of Eusebius , the rest of the New Testament and the version of the Psalms from the Septuagint known as the Psalterium romanum, which was followed c.
After a short residence at Lambeth he was appointed, through the influence of Cromwell, then chancellor of the university, to lecture on theology at Cambridge; but when he had delivered a few expositions of the Hebrew psalms , he was compelled by the opposition of the papal party to desist.
A few verses from the Psalms , the shrunken remainder of a whole Psalm. A verse or verses from the Psalms sung at the offering of the elements. The first book with his imprint is The Psalms of David Imitated in For the prevention of counterfeiting continental paper money Franklin long afterwards suggested the use on the different denominations of different leaves, having noted the infinite variety of leaf venation.
He had earlier opened a correspondence with Augustine, along with his friends Tyro and Hilarius, and although he did not meet him personally his enthusiasm for the great theologian led him to make an abridgment of his commentary on the Psalms , as well as a collection of sentences from his works - probably the first dogmatic compilation of that class in which Peter Lombard's Liber sententiarum is the best-known example. After his death, a volume of Remains with a memoir was published, and the poems contained in this, with those in Poems, chiefly Religious, were afterwards issued in one volume Auslegung des Propheten Jesajas , which he dedicated to Heinrich Ewald, and which Hermann Hupfeld , well known as a commentator on the Psalms , pronounced to be his best exegetical work.
At Zurich he laboured for a period of twenty-eight years, during which, besides commentaries on The Psalms ; 2nd ed.. Nevertheless, the concentration of all ritual at a single point, and the practical exclusion of laymen from active participation in it - for the old sacrificial feast had now shrunk into entire insignificance in comparison with the stated priestly holocausts and atoning rites2 - lent powerful assistance to the growth of a new and higher type of personal religion, the religion which found its social expression not in material acts of oblation, but in the language of the Psalms.
In the best times of the old kingdom the priests had shared the place of the prophets as the religious leaders of the nation; under the second Temple they represented the unprogressive traditional side of religion, and the leaders of thought were the psalmists and the scribes, who spoke much more directly to the piety of the nation.
He was a Protestant, and among other religious works translated the Psalms. His best work was Zwierciadio albo zywot poczciwego czlowieka The Mirror or Life of an Honourable Man - a somewhat tedious didactic piece. He also executed a translation of the Psalms. He wrote a play - a piece of one act, with twelve scenes - The Despatch of the Greek Ambassadors. Among his latest productions are his " Psalms of the Future" Psalmy przyszlosci , which were attacked by the democratic party as a defence of aristocratic views which had already ruined Poland..
The " Writings," also sometimes the " Sacred Writings," i.
Another allusion to the tripartite division is also no doubt to be found in the expression " the law, the prophets, and the psalms ," in Luke xxiv. Each of the five books of which it is composed contains psalms which show that its compilation cannot have been completed till after the return from the Captivity; and indeed, when the individual psalms are studied carefully it becomes apparent that in the great majority of cases they presuppose the historical conditions, or the religious experiences, of the ages that followed Jeremiah.
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Thus, though it is going too far to say that there are no pre-exilic psalms , the Psalter, as a whole, is the expression of the deeper spiritual feeling which marked the later stages of Israel's history. Its compilation can hardly have been finally completed before the 3rd century B. The Psalms were written mostly by David, but " some of them after the return from the captivity, as the th 1 In what follows the actual quotations are from his English work; some of the summaries take account of the brief expansions in his later Latin version.
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Now I, 2, 3 are absolutely independent - if 1 were proved false, 2 and 3 would still stand; and so with 2 and 3; so also 2 and 3 could be proved false without in any way affecting the validity of 4. On the other hand, if 1 were disproved, 4 would immediately fall through, and the strength of 5 would be weakened as it would also by the disproof of 2 , because the argument for the date of many Psalms is derived from religious ideas and the significance of these varies greatly according as the Priestly Code is held to be early or late.
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